Hofstede’s Six Dimensions of Culture

Me and my classmate decided to Defined the six dimensions to make it easier to understand.

Khawla Mohamed    H00293384

Maha Nasser              H00293599


Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory is a structure developed by Geert Hofstede. That is consisting of six dimensions, and each dimension shows how the society member behave, also it describe the effect of it on their value.

The dimensions are:

  • Power distance index (PDI):

Power distance index explains the power is distributed in the country. That mean there is high and low powerful member of the society, and they are not equal. A country with a high degree of the index it members is accepting the differences between them. On the other hand, the low-level index is not accepting the changes they believe that they are equal, and people are aiming to achieve the equality. For example, Japan and the USA are democratic countries and they believe that all human are equal, so they had low power distance.

  • Individualism and collectivism (IDV):

Individualism is caring only about themselves and their family. And the collectivism is the opposite of individualism; they are caring for all the member of the group. For example, UAE is more collectivism than individualism; because Emiratis are caring more of their group and country benefit rather that there own benefit. It has only 25% individualism. US societies are 90% individualism. American are caring more about themselves.

  • Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI):

The uncertainty avoidance dimension expresses the tolerance of ambiguity of society, in which it shows if the member is comfortable with the uncertainty of the future issues or not. The uncertainty avoidance cultures are restricting the issues by-laws, believes, and religion. However, the uncertainty accepting cultures are taking different ideas and thoughts, they have fewer rules, and it is adapted to uncertainty. For example, Japan has a high UAI (92%) because of the nurture disaster so they have plans, and they are aware of what will happen. In USA (46%) it’s ok to take the risk and see what will happen.

  • Masculinity vs. Femininity (MAS):

In this dimension, the high masculine culture the man is focused on the material succeed life, and they are a distinction between women and men’s job. But in the low masculine cultures, the men’s and women’s are almost equal, women can do anything men can do. For example: In UAE women are not allowed to be in all the jobs men can be. But in US women and men are equal, and there are no big differences.

  • Long term orientation vs. short-term orientation (LTO):

Long-term orientation societies people think more and save more money for the future. In the short-term orientation culture, the member of the corporation are more individualism, and they think more about the present also they save less money than the long-term orientation members of the society. For Example: In US most of the people are short-term orientation, and they think more about them self and they save less money than the Japanese when Japanese are long-term orientation people they think more about future, and they save more money for it.

  • Indulgence vs. restraint (IND):

In high indulgence culture, the people have the freedom to enjoy life and the society doesn’t restrain the people. In restraint culture, the people have a self-restrained, and they interested more about face saving, and they don’t want to be different that the members of their group. For Example, Japanese are more likely interested in face-saving, and they don’t want to be different that the members of their group. But American does what they want, and they don’t care about face saving.


Kaethe. (2012, February 20). Cultural differences – indulgence versus restraint. Retrieved February 15, 2016, from Binschedler: http://www.binschedler.com/2012/02/indulgence-restraint/

Neill, C. (2012, June 7). GEERT HOFSTEDE: THE 6 DIMENSIONS OF NATIONAL CULTURE. Retrieved February 15, 2016, from MOVING PEOPLE TO ACTION:http://conorneill.com/2012/06/07/geert-hofstede-the-6-dimensions-of-national-culture/

Together Learning . (2015, March 6). Comparing Japanese and American Culture w/ Hofstede. Retrieved February 16, 2016, from YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jVCfuVU35eU

Wikipedia contributors . (2016, February 13). Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory. Retrieved February 15, 2016, from wikipedia:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hofstede%27s_cultural_dimensions_theory


High or Low Context Culture

High Or  Low Context Culture Descriptors:

  1. Strong sense of insiders and outsiders (H)
  2. Specific information exists (L)
  3. Informal (L)
  4. Team and family activities preferred (H)
  5. Focus on results (L)
  6. Transparency expected (L)
  7. A lot of confidential information (H)
  8. Rules and regulations are easily accessible (L)
  9. Close personal relationships (H)
  10. General information (H)
  11. Elders/authoritative figures in control (H)
  12. “Have a go at it” philosophy (L)
  13. Individual responsibility (L)
  14. Concerned about ‘losing’ face. (H)
  15. Expertise valued (L)
  16. Who you know is important (H)
  17. Focus on task (H)
  18. Emphasis on words and text (L)
  19. Strong sense of family (H)
  20. What you know is important (L)
  21. Gender roles clearly defined (H)
  22. Polite people admired (H)
  23. Reserved (H)
  24. Individual freedom valued (L)
  25. Strong sense of honour (H)
  26. Short term relationships (L)
  27. Process more important than product (H)
  28. Privacy (even when dealing with one’s own family) highly valued (H)
  29. Public admission of wrongdoing expected. (H)
  30. Strong sense of respect (H)
  31. Better response to visual information (H)                
  32. Gender roles less fixed (L)
  33. No direct eye contact (H)
  34. Strong sense of fairness (L)
  35. Verbal agreements (H)
  36. Values logic over feeling (L)
  37. Very rare marriage with outsiders (H)
  38. Clear division of responsibilities at work (L)
  39. Written contracts (L)
  40. Public criticism insulting (H)

Culture Advertisement

There is many things must be avoided in their advertisement for the UAE such as:

1- The must not put a pictures that shows a women in a not proper cloths, that is not match our traditional cloths. Because it is a religious thing, and our culture doesn’t accept it.

2- Writing a inappropriate words. because it shows less respect to the people in public.

3- They should not set a picture in their advertisement that show wine , pork or things are not allowed to the muslims. Because its not accepted and not respectful to our society and our religion.

4- The should not provide a racism content. because our religion is banned racism.